Micoze sau fungi

SUPERFICIAL MYCOSES. The fungi responsible are limited to the outer surface of hair and skin and hence are called superficial. Because infections of the skin, hair, and nails were at one time believed to be the result of burrowing worms that formed ring-shaped patterns in the skin, the term tinea (Latin meaning worm) was applied to each disease, along with a Latin term for the body site. 27/06/ · MYCOSES. Mycoses are infections caused by pathogenic fungi. And they include superficial mycoses, cutaneous mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, systemic or deep-seated mycosis and opportunistic mycoses.

The name given to the different types of mycoses or fungal infections in humans usually depends on the affected tissue or parts of the body where. • Micoze –cauzate de fungi patogeni. • Micoze sistemice grave • Meningite, administrare intrarahidian lent • Local în candidoze cutaneo mucoase. [ciuperca.realitateasatelor.ro] – faţă de bacterii, fungii au peretele celular mai rigid şi membrana. Infectii ale pielii, parului si unghiilor induse de dermatofiti (dermato micoze, micoze sistemice localizate sau diseminate ca histoplasmoza pulmonara. Micozele cutanate superficiale, cunoscute și ca micoze ale pielii sau ciupercile pielii sunt afecţiuni produse de dermatofiţi (fungi), care ajung să infesteze stratul superficial, cornos, al pielii. Firele de păr şi unghiile de asemenea pot fi infestate de către dermatofiţi.

Micoze sau fungi

Micoze sau fungi
Acestea sunt reprezentate de congestia conjunctivala ochi rosii, lacrimare abundenta, uneori prezenta unor pseudomembrane sau membrane la nivelul conjunctivei sau prezenta unui inel rosu in jurul corneei. People working in dusty areas should always wear protective face mask to avoid the inhalation of fungal spores. Formele topice disponibile cuprind: crema, ungvent, solutie. Epidermomicozele sunt micoze care ating Micoze sau fungi, provocate de dermatofiti sau de ptiriazis verzi color. A and Cihlar R. Apart from affecting the subcutaneous tissues of the skin, subcutaneous mycoses also involve Micoze sau fungi dermis layer of the skin. Triamcinolon acetonidul dezvolta efecte antiinflamatorii, antipruriginoase si antialergice accentuate. Prognoza meteo până pe 8 ianuarie.

Micoza genitala cunoscuta si sub denumirea de tinea cruris, pruritul Dhobie sau eczema marginatum, este o infectie dermatofitica fungica a regiunii inghinale la orice sex, desi este observata mai ales la barbati. Micoza genitala este diferita de intertrigo candidozic, care este o infectie a pielii determinata de Candida albicans. Inflamatia mucoasei conjunctivale poate fi produssa de fungi si poarta numele de „micoze conjunctivale” sau „conjunctivite fungice” ; acestea sunt intalnite mai ales in mediul rural. Simptome de conjunctivita fungica.

Micoză – Wikipedia

Micoza - infecția micotică
In general, distruge germenii patogeni din vaginin 5 zile. Infectii micotic [continuare]. Life-threatening infections associated with subcutaneous mycoses are rare in humans. Chromoblastomycoses Start Micoze sau fungi traumatically implanting the spore into a limb. Micoza unghial ă; Micoze cutanate Tratamentul [wuzivaninuvynivo. Aceste informații pot fi suficiente pentru a trata corect micozele superficiale, cu prezentare clinică tipică.

Figure 4. Micoheal, crema vaginala Din Medicamente Indicatii: – vulvo-vaginite fungice, – infectii determinate de Candida – infectii secundare cauzate de bacterii grampozitive. Leziuni de tinea de mari dimensiuni pot fi văzute la pacienţii care au urmat tratament eronat cu corticoizi topici tinea incognitoîn asemenea situaţii leziunile cel mai adesea au un aspect ciudat, fiind greu de recunoscut clinic. Indicatii In micoze, infectii bacteriene ale pielii cu diverse localizari interdigital, Micoze sau fungi, palmar, periunghialMicoze sau fungi dezinfectia instrumentarului medical si de manichiura-pedichiura exceptand cel de aluminiudezinfectia ciorapilor si incaltamintei.

Marginile pielii afectate pot prezenta pustule sau papule. Daca infectia este candidozica, eruptia este mai eritematoasa si umeda. Pielea penisului poate fi afectata. Medicii sugereaza mentinerea zonei inghinale curate si uscate, expusa la aer.

Alte recomandari cuprind evitarea impartirii hainelor si a prosoapelor, a aparatelor de ras, purtarea lenjeriei din bumbac si folosirea pudrelor antifungice.
Micoza genitala se trateaza cel mai bine cu antifungice topice de tip alilamina sau azol. Daca inflamatia pielii determina disconfort si prurit, crema cu glucocorticoizi poate fi combinata cu un antifungic pentru a preveni iritatia datorata scarpinatului. Totusi, steroizii pot exacerba conditia daca sunt folositi fara antifungice, deoarece scad apararea imuna.
Agentul etiologic cel mai adesea intilnit in micoza genitala este Trichophyton rubrum , urmat de Epidermophyton flocosum , mai rar Trichophyton mentagrophytes si Trichophyton verrucosum. Micoza genitala este o infectie contagioasa transmisa prin obiecte personale, cum sunt prosoapele contaminate sau asternuturile de hotel sau prin autoinoculare dintr-un rezervor aflat pe miini sau picioare tinea manum, tinea pedis, tinea unghium.

Agentii etiologici produc keratinase care permit invazia stratului cornos al epidermului.
Raspunsul imun al gazdei poate preveni invazia profunda. Factorii de risc pentru infectia initiala sau reinfectie cuprind purtarea unei lenjerii strimte, ude sau sintetice. Micoza genitala este o infectie fungica superficiala a zonei inghinale si a pielii adiacente, fiind cea de-a doua dintre cele mai comune motive de prezentare la medic pentru dermatofitoza. Este o problema frecventa si importanta clinic, putind fi uneori o provocare terapeutica si diagnostica. Infectia are o distributie in toata lumea dar este intilnita mai frecvent in climatele umede.

Nu asociaza mortalitate. Pruritul asociat conduce la morbiditate aparuta prin lichenificare, infectie bacteriana secundara si dermatita iritanta sau alergica cauzata de medicamentele aplicate topic. Micoza genitala este de trei ori mai frecventa la barbati decit la femei. Adultii sunt afectati mai adesea decit copiii. Totusi prevalenta factorilor de risc, cum este obezitatea si diabetul zaharat , creste rapid si printre adolescenti. Pacientii cu micoza genitala acuza prurit si eritem al regiunii inghinale.

Multi pacienti isi amintesc si alte episoade similare clinic. Anamneza mai poate aduce informatii despre sedinte recente de inot sau sauna, purtarea unei lenjerii inadecvate strimte, sintetice, umede, imprumutate , purtarea unor costume de baie umede pentru perioade lungi, imprumutul hainelor, a prosoapelor, aparatelor de ras, participarea la sporturi sau diabetul zaharat, obezitatea coexistente. Membrii colectivitatilor soldatii, sportivii pot fi la risc de dermatofitoza.
Micoza genitala se manifesta prin eruptie eritematoasa simetrica inghinala. Placarde si placi intinse eritematoase cu vindecare centrala, centrate pe faldurile inghinale cu extindere distala pe fetele mediale ale coapselor si proximal pe abdomenul inferior si zona pubiana. La periferie se observa descuamare usoara.

In forma acuta a micozei genitale eruptia poate fi umeda si exudativa. Infectiile cronice sunt de obicei uscate cu margine arciforma papulara si scuame abia vizibile la periferie. Zonele centrale sunt tipic hiperpigmentate si contin papule eritematoase cu putine scuame. Penisul si scrotul nu sunt afectate, totusi infectia se poate extinde la perineu si fese. Modificarile secundare: escoriatiile, lichenificarea si impetiginizarea pot fi prezente ca rezultat al pruritului.
Infectiile cronice modificate de aplicarea topica a corticosteroizilor sunt mai eritematoase, mai putin descuamative si pot avea pustule foliculare. Aproximativ jumatate dintre pacienti au si tinea pedis. Placile eritemato-scuamoase si eritemato-lichenificate sunt cele mai frecvente forme clinice. Micoza genitala poate deveni infectata secundar prin organisme bacteriene sau candida.

Zona poate deveni lichenificata si hiperpigmentata in cazul unei infectii fungice cronice. Tratamentul gresit cu steroizi topici poate determina exacerbarea bolii. Desi pacientii pot observa ameliorarea initiala a simptomelor, infectia se poate extinde. Examenul microscopic a unei cantitati de scuame umezite cu hidroxid de potasiu este diagnostic in tinea cruris.
Procedura pentru prepararea cu hidroxid de potasiu cuprinde: Cultura pe medii Mycosel sau Sabourand este gata in saptamini pentru a permite identificarea fungului. Testul negativ la hidroxidul de potasiu si culturi exclud alte conditii in diagnosticul diferential. Daca micoza genitala este inca sugerata, se va repeta testul de mai multe ori daca este necesar.
Punch biopsia este diagnostica dar are specificitate si sensibilitate mica.

La folosirea coloratiei Schiff elementele fungice apar roz sau la coloratia cu argint apar maro sau negre, crescind sensibilitatea procedurii. Examenul cu lampa Wood poate ajuta in excluderea eritrasmei, care prezinta fluorescenta rosu coral a zonei afectate. Examinarea microscopica a sectiunilor tisulare colorate cu hematoxilin-eozina arata modele de inflamatie sugestive pentru infectia dermatofitica. Inflamatia este perivasculara, epidermul prezinta spongioza sau modificari psoriaziforme cu hiperplazie. Dermatita granulomatoasa poate acompania foliculita.
Vindecarea unei infectii necomplicate poate fi obtinuta prin folosirea antifungicelor topice din familia imidazolilor sau a alilaminelor.

Pacientii care nu pot folosi tratamentele constant sau cu infectii extensive sau recalcitrante sunt candidati pentru administrarea sistemica a terapiei antifungice, dovedita sigura la persoanele imunocompetente. Cele doua clase de medicamente antifungice folosite cel mai adesea pentru a trata micoza genitala sunt azolii si alilaminele. Azolii inhiba enzima lanosterol 14 alfa-demetilaza , enzima care transforma lanosterolul in ergosterol, o componenta importanta a pertelui celular fungic.
Drainage blocks lymphatic pathways, resulting in elephantiasis, deformity, and abnormal enlargement of the infected arm. In the deepest areas of the tumors, black spots, called sclerotic skeletons, can be seen. A symptom of the disease may be secondary bacterial infections.

Phialophora verrucosa, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Fonsecaea compacta, Rhinocladiella aquaspersa , and Cladophialophora carrionii are dematiaceous fungi that cause infections. The infection is long-term and is characterized by the gradual progression of granulomatous lesions that eventually lead to epidermal hyperplasia. Phaeohyphomycosis can range from a superficial infection to one that affects several organs. Phialophora, Exophiala , and Wangiella are the causative agents, all of which develop slow-growing, black, yeasty colonies with a short mycelium.
With the exception of Cryptococcus neoformans, which only has a yeast form, the fungi that cause systemic or deep mycoses are dimorphic, meaning they have a parasitic yeastlike phase Y and a saprophytic mold or mycelial phase M. Inhalation of spores from soil containing the mold-phase of the fungus is how most systemic mycoses are acquired.

An infection starts as a lung lesion, becomes persistent, and travels through the bloodstream to other organs if a susceptible individual inhales enough spores the target organ varies with the species. Blastomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis , which spreads in humans as a budding yeast either as a mold on culture media and in the atmosphere.
There are three clinical manifestations of the disease: cutaneous, coronary, and disseminated. When blastospores are inhaled into the lungs, the infection begins. The fungus will then spread quickly, especially to the skin, causing cutaneous ulcers and abscesses. From pus and biopsy bits, B. The medications of choice for therapy are amphotericin B, itraconazole, or ketoconazole.

Arthroconidia inhalation causes a primary infection that is asymptomatic in 60 percent of people. The production of serum precipitins and conversion to a positive skin test within 2—4 weeks are the only signs of infection.
Histoplasmosis is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. In humans and on culture media at 37°C, it occurs as a small budding yeast. It develops as a mold at 25°C and produces small microconidia 1—5 um in diameter that are borne singly at the tips of short conidiophores. Histoplasmosis is transmitted to humans by airborne microconidia that are formed in ideal conditions. Microconidia are most common in areas where bird droppings, or guanos, have collected, especially from starlings, crows, blackbirds, cowbirds, sea gulls, turkeys, and chickens.
Since histoplasmosis is a disorder of the monocyte-macrophage system, it may affect a variety of body organs.

Most infections recover on their own; however, lesions in the lungs can occur and display calcification. The illness is very unlikely to spread. Amphotericin B, ketoconazole, or itraconazole are now the most common treatments. Patients with weakened host defenses are vulnerable to fungi that are common in the environment but to which healthy patients are normally immune.
The underlying predisposing state of the host also determines the form of fungus and the natural history of a mycotic infection. Candida and associated yeasts are endogenous opportunists, as part of the natural mammalian microbiota. Exogenous fungi found worldwide in soil, water, and air cause other opportunistic mycoses. Candida, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and penicilliosis are the most common pathogens and diseases they cause. However, the number of fungal species causing severe mycotic infections in people with weakened immune systems is rising.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection that may affect the lips, vaginal area, skin, nails, bronchi, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, bloodstream, and urinary tract. Candida albicans is the most common causative agent, but other Candida species are emerging as opportunistic pathogens. Candida albicans is found in the skin, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract as part of the natural flora. Oral thrush is a yeast infection that causes white curd-like patches on the mucosa of the mouth. Vulvovaginitis, also known as vaginal thrush, is characterized by a thick yellow-white discharge.
The patient is predisposed to this disease by diabetes, antibiotic treatment, oral contraceptives, and breastfeeding. Patients with indwelling catheters develop candidemias, which are caused mainly by C. This yeast cells, unlike other pathogenic fungi, have large polysaccharide capsules.

Cryptococcus neoformans is found in nature all over the world and can be easily isolated from dry pigeon waste, plants, soil, and other sources. Cryptococcus gattii is a less common parasitic fungus found in tropical areas. Inhalation of desiccated yeast cells or perhaps the smaller basidiospores causes cryptococcosis in both species.
This neurotropic yeasts normally migrate from the lungs to the central nervous system, causing meningoencephalitis. Cryptococcosis caused by C. Aspergillosis refers to a group of diseases caused by various Aspergillus species. Aspergillus species are common saprobes in nature, and aspergillosis is found all over the world.
The most common human pathogen is Aspergillus fumigatus , although other pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus , and Aspergillus lentulus may also cause disease.

This mold creates a large number of tiny conidia that are readily dispersed in the air. Atopic individuals also experience serious allergic reactions to the conidial antigens after inhaling these conidia.
Itraconazole or amphotericin B, as well as surgery, are used to treat aspergilloma. This fungi are thermotolerant saprobes that are found all over the world. Species of the genera Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Lichtheimia, Cunninghamella, Mucor , and others are the most common pathogens in this genus. Rhizopus oryzae is the most common pathogen.

Acidosis, including that associated with diabetes mellitus, leukemias, lymphoma, corticosteroid therapy, extreme burns, and immunodeficiencies, depending on the sporangial structures, are all conditions that put patients at risk.
Pneumocystis pneumonia; In immunocompromised patients, Pneumocystis jiroveci develops pneumonia; however, transmission is uncommon.

Micoze cutanate superficiale – Mivaderm – Cabinet Dermatologie Dr. Virginia Chițu

FUNGAL INFECTIONS (MYCOSES) - Microbiology Class
Mycoses are infections caused by pathogenic fungi. And they include superficial mycoses, cutaneous mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, systemic or deep-seated mycosis and opportunistic mycoses. The name given to the different types of mycoses or fungal infections in humans usually depends on the affected tissue or parts of the body where the infecting or invading Micoze sau fungi fungi is localized in the body. However, other forms of fungal infections which are not directly caused by pathogenic fungi but their toxic products and the untoward reactions which they provoke in the affected host also exist. Such clinical conditions include mycotoxicoses and fungal allergies.

Mycotoxicoses and fungal allergies are pathological conditions of some fungi, which are usually initiated following human contact with fungal spores and their toxins especially by eating food containing fungal mycotoxins Micoze sau fungi exotoxins from toxin-producing fungi. Mycotoxicoses are caused by mycotoxins fungal exotoxins produced by some Micoze sau fungi organisms that infest food especially cereals and grains that are poorly stored. It can also occur through the inhalation of fungal spores from the environment. Human mycotoxicoses are usually caused through the consumption of foods containing mycotoxins especially those of Aspergillus flavus. Micoze sau fungi are produced in food on which the pathogenic fungus is growing, and the consumption of such fungus-toxin infested food leads to mycotoxicoses, a clinical condition similar to the actions of bacterial Micoze sau fungi. Apart from causing fungal disease, mycotoxicoses causes loss of revenue in the agricultural sector and the gross-domestic product GDP of agricultural-producing nations.

FUNGAL INFECTIONS (MYCOSES)

micoze candida

Acestea sunt reprezentate de congestia conjunctivala ochi rosii, lacrimare abundenta, uneori prezenta unor pseudomembrane sau Micize la nivelul conjunctivei sau Micoze sau fungi unui inel rosu in jurul corneei. Fungii sporotrichum blastomycetes determina formarea unor Micoze sau fungi galbui, de mici dimensiuni la nivelul conjunctivei. Acesti noduli se pot ulcera si pot fi insotiti de adenopatie preauriculara. Uneori simptomele pot apare si fnugi fara tratament forme cronice. Conjunctivita fungica produsa de Leptothrix se manifesta prin aparitia unor mase vegetative granulomatoase la nivelul conjunctivei pleoapei superioare, insotita de adenopatie preauriculara.

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